Python, Tutorials

Python Math Module

The math module is one of the most popular and commonly used modules in Python. As the name suggests, the math module contains pre-built mathematical operations.

Using it, we can import several useful functions that can help in performing mathematical operations. Moreover, the math module also contains mathematical constants.

The following are some of the uses of Python math module functions. (full list)

  • Calculating factorials.
  • Rounding off a float number.
  • Solving quadric and trigonometric equations like sin, cos, tan, asin etc.
  • Calculating the base to the exponent power.
  • Calculating the square root of a number.
  • calculating log
  • calculating permutation and combination

Constants in Math Module

The math module also comes with some constants namely:

Constant namemath module functionSymbolValueRemarks
piemath.piπ3.141592…mathematical constant defined as  ratio of a circle’s circumference to its diameter,
emath.ee2.718281Euler’s number
taumath.tauτ6.283185…circle constant equal to 2π
infinitymath.inffloating-point positive infinity equivalent to float(‘inf’)
not a numbermath.nannanequivalen to float(‘nan’)
Math Module mathematical constants

Import math

To use the functions and constants of math module we first import the built-in math module:

Instead of importing the full module we can import cherry picked function by:

Functions in Math Module

Functions in math module are categorized based on there mathematical usage.

Example of some commonly used math module fuctions

math.factorial()

The math.factorial() function is used to get the factorial of a number. Only positive integers are accepted by this function.

math.factorial

math.pow

The math.pow() function is to find the value of x raised to power y. It always returns a float value

math.pow

math.ceil and math.floor

The math.ceil() function returns the smallest integer greater than or equal to the number.

math.floor() function returns the largest integer less than or equal to the number.

math.ceil

math.sqrt

The math.sqrt() function is used to find the square root of a number.

math.sqrt

math.fsum

The math.fsum() function is used to find the sum of all the items of an iterable such as list, tuple, and set. It always returns a float value.

math.fsum

Note: The functions in the math module do not accept complex values. To use complex values use cmath module instead.

List of All Math module Functions

Number-theoretic and representation functions

Function NameUsage
math.ceil(x)returns smallest integer greater than or equal to x
math.comb(nk)returns combination is a selection of items k from a collection n, such that the order of selection does not matter
math.copysign(xy)returns x with sign of y
math.fabs(x)returns absolute value of x
math.factorial(x)returns factorial of an integer
math.floor(x)Return the floor of x, the largest integer less than or equal to x
math.fmod(xy)Returns mod/ remainder of x/y. preferred when calculating mod of float numbers. Not equal to x%y operation
math.frexp(x)Return the mantissa and exponent of x as the pair (m, e)
math.fsum(iterable)Return an accurate floating point sum of values in the iterable.
math.gcd(*integers)Return the greatest common divisor of the specified integer arguments
math.isclose(ab*rel_tol=1e-09abs_tol=0.0)Return True if the values a and b are close to each other and False otherwise, rel_tol is the relative tolerance,abs_tol is the minimum absolute tolerance (read_more)
math.isfinite(x)Return True if x is neither an infinity nor a NaN, and False otherwise.
math.isinf(x)Return True if x is a positive or negative infinity, and False otherwise.
math.isnan(x)Return True if x is a NaN (not a number), and False otherwise.
math.isqrt(n)Return the integer square root of the nonnegative integer n
math.lcm(*integers)Return the least common multiple of the specified integer arguments
math.ldexp(xi)Return x * (2**i)
math.modf(x)Return the fractional and integer parts of x. Both results carry the sign of x and are floats.
math.nextafter(xy)Return the next floating-point value after x towards y.
math.perm(nk=None)Permutation operation.Return the number of ways to choose k items from n items without repetition and with order.
math.prod(iterable*start=1)Calculate the product of all the elements in the input iterable.
math.remainder(xy)Return the IEEE 754-style remainder of x with respect to y.
math.trunc(x)Return the real value x truncated to an integral
math.ulp(x)Return the value of the least significant bit of the float x
Math module Number-theoretic and representation function.

Math Module Power and logarithmic functions

Function NameUsage
math.exp(x)Returns e raised to the power x
math.expm1(x)Return e raised to the power x, minus 1
math.log(x[, base])Return the natural logarithm of x to base . Calculated as log(x)/log(base)
math.log1p(x)Return the natural logarithm of 1+x (base e)
math.log2(x)Return the base-2 logarithm of x.
math.log10(x)Return the base-10 logarithm of x.
math.pow(xy)Return x raised to the power y
math.sqrt(x)Return the square root of x.
Math Module Power and logarithm functions

Math Module Trigonometric Functions

Function nameUsage
math.acos(x)Return the arc cosine of x, in radians
math.asin(x)Return the arc sine of x, in radians.
math.atan(x)Return the arc tangent of x, in radians.
math.atan2(yx)Return atan(y / x), in radians.
math.cos(x)Return the cosine of x radians.
math.dist(pq)Return the Euclidean distance between two points p and q
math.hypot(*coordinates)Return the Euclidean norm.
math.sin(x)Return the sine of x radians.
math.tan(x)Return the tangent of x radians.
Math Module Trigonometric functions

Math Module Angular Conversion

Function nameUsage
math.degrees(x)Convert angle x from radians to degrees.
math.radians(x)Convert angle x from degrees to radians.
Math module Angular Conversion

Math Module Hyperbolic Functions

Function NameUsage
math.acosh(x)Return the inverse hyperbolic cosine of x.
math.asinh(x)Return the inverse hyperbolic sine of x.
math.atanh(x)Return the inverse hyperbolic tangent of x.
math.cosh(x)Return the hyperbolic cosine of x.
math.sinh(x)Return the hyperbolic sine of x.
math.tanh(x)Return the hyperbolic tangent of x.
Math Module Hyperbolic Functions

Math Module Special Functions

Function NameUsage
math.erf(x)Return the error function at x.
math.erfc(x)Return the complementary error function at x.
math.gamma(x)Return the Gamma function at x.
math.lgamma(x)Return the natural logarithm of the absolute value of the Gamma function at x.
Math Module Special Functions

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